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 Glyphosate:

Linked to Diseases and Cancer

Perception: Glyphosate residues in foods pose no health risks for children.

Reality: In 2015, glyphosate was declared a "probable carcinogen" by the World Health Organization and has been linked to multiple autoimmune conditions and diseases, including cancer. In 2018, plaintiff Dewayne "Lee" Johnson was awarded millions of dollars in damages when a jury found Monsanto responsible for the plaintiff's cancer. Multiple Monsanto internal memos were released during the trial exposing the toxicity of Roundup.

Key Points:

*"Glyphosate herbicide is widely utilized in agriculture because it is a cost-effective, easy to use compound that kills weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses competing with crops."

*"Once absorbed by the plant, glyphosate binds to and blocks the activity of an enzyme called enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The EPSPS enzyme comes at the start of the shikimic acid pathway."

*"ADHD: The journal Environmental Health Perspectives reported in 2002 that exposure to Roundup [glyphosate herbicide] was been linked to attention deficit disorder (ADHD), likely due to the herbicide’s capacity to disrupt thyroid hormone functions."

*"Alzheimer’s Disease: A study published in the journal Toxicology found that glyphosate exposure can cause the same kind of oxidative stress and neural cell death found in Alzheimer’s diagnosis. It also affects CaMKII, an enzyme whose dysregulation has also been linked to Alzheimer’s.

*"Autism: A research scientist at MIT says the symptoms of glyphosate toxicity closely resembles the same of autism symptoms."

*"Birth Defects: Glyphosate exposure can disrupt the Vitamin A signaling pathway, which is critical for normal fetal development. A study from Paraguay found that babies born to women, living less than a mile from fields sprayed with glyphosate herbicide, were more than twice as likely to develop birth defects.

*"Cancer: There are numerous glyphosate studies that link glyphosate to cancer. The International Agency of Research on Cancer (an agency within the World Health Organization) published a study in 2015 that determined glyphosate is a probable human carcinogen. There is also a meta-analysis study from 2014 published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health and a 2008 Swedish study that link glyphosate and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

*"The high cancer rates among those exposed to Roundup [glyphosate herbicide] can likely be traced to the herbicide’s known capacity to induce DNA damage, which has been demonstrated in a number of laboratory tests."

*"Celiac Disease: A study of fish exposed to glyphosate herbicide showed that some developed digestive problems similar to those with Celiac Disease. Parallels between glyphosate exposure and Celiac Disease include impairment in enzymes critical to detoxifying environmental toxins, imbalances in gut bacteria, amino acid depletion and certain mineral deficiencies."

*"Colitis: A Roundup study titled ‘The Effect of Glyphosate on Potential Pathogens and Beneficial Members of Poultry Microbiota in Vitro’ found that glyphosate toxicity could be a significant predisposing factor in the overgrowth of clostridia, an established causal factor in colitis."

*"Heart Disease: A study published in Entropy found that glyphosate exposure can cause disruption to the body’s enzymes, causing lysosomal dysfunction, which is a factor in heart failure and cardiovascular disease."

*"Inflammatory Bowel Disease: In another Entropy study, researchers found that exposure to glyphosate has been demonstrated to create a severe tryptophan deficiency in some, which can cause inflammatory bowel disease."

*"Kidney Disease: Glyphosate herbicide exposure may explain the recent spike in kidney disease statistics among farm workers in India, Central America and Sri Lanka. According to the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health: “Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers.”"

*"Liver Disease: A 2009 study showed that very low doses of glyphosate can disrupt liver cell function."

*"Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A study looking at meta-analyses of nearly 30 years worth of research on the relationship between Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and occupational exposure to pesticides, found a positive association between glyphosate herbicide exposure and B cell lymphoma."

*"Parkinson’s Disease: The onset of Parkinson’s following glyphosate exposure has been documented by a number of lab studies, which show that glyphosate can induce the cell death characteristic of the disease."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Baum Hedlund Aristei Goldman, PC; Glyphosate herbicide. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.baumhedlundlaw.com/toxic-tort-law/monsanto-roundup-lawsuit/what-is-glyphosate-herbicide/

 

Key Points:

*EPA Memo: Glyphosate sprayed on foods from A-W

*"Pesticide usage data for a single active ingredient only."

Read Full Article:

Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency Memorandum. (2015, October 22). Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-pJR4cGo9ckb3k4UDczbVdiT1E/view

 

Key Points:

*"Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat."

*"Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body."

*"Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport."

*"Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease."

*"The foodstuffs of the Western diet, primarily grown by industrial agriculture, are increasingly being produced using a two-part system of engineered plant seeds and toxic chemical application."

*"This paper however, will only examine the effects of the chemical glyphosate, the most popular herbicide on the planet."

*"80% of genetically modified crops, particularly corn, soy, canola, cotton, sugar beets and most recently alfalfa, are specifically targeted towards the introduction of genes resistant to glyphosate, the so-called “Roundup Ready® feature” In humans, only small amounts (~2%) of ingested glyphosate are metabolized to aminomethylphosphonic acid *"The currently accepted dogma is that glyphosate is not harmful to humans or to any mammals because the shikimate pathway is absent in all animals. However, this pathway is present in gut bacteria, which play an important and heretofore largely overlooked role in human physiology [11,12,13,14] through an integrated biosemiotic relationship with the human host.MPA), and the rest enters the blood stream and is eventually eliminated through the urine [1]."

*"A long-term study conducted on rats showed remarkable pathologies that became apparent only after the three-month period that is usually allotted for toxicity trials."

*"The rats that were chronically exposed to Roundup® developed several pathologies over the course of their lifespan, including large mammary tumors in the females and gastrointestinal, liver and kidney pathologies, especially in the males."

*"Researchers have discovered that Roundup® is sometimes much more toxic than glyphosate by itself, and this discrepancy can be explained by the fact that Roundup® includes a surfactant which greatly enhances cytotoxic effects of glyphosate [46]."

*"There has been a marked increase in the rate of irrational school-associated violent deaths in the United States since 1990 [206], and glyphosate may play a role in this pattern through depletion of serotonin bioavailability. Disturbances in serotonin function in the brain are known factors in impulsive aggression, violence, and criminal behavior [207]"

*"Myeloma has been associated with agents that cause DNA damage [260], and DNA damage is a known consequence of chronic exposure to inflammatory agents, which, we have argued, are induced by glyphosate acting on the gut bacteria and suppressing CYP activity. Depleted supply of tryptophan as a substrate for poly-ADP ribose also contributes to DNA damage."

*"Today, it is estimated that 90% of the transgenic crops grown worldwide are glyphosate resistant."

*"Glyphosate is likely to be pervasive in our food supply, and, contrary to being essentially nontoxic, it may in fact be the most biologically disruptive chemical in our environment."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Samuel, Anthony and Seneca, Stephanie. (2013, April 10). Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416/htm

Key Points:

*"The percentage of total public school enrollment that represents children served by federally supported special education programs increased from 8.3 percent to 13.8 percent between 1976–77 and 2004–05."

*"The percentage of children identified as having other health impairments (limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems such as a heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, or diabetes) rose from 1.1 to 1.7 percent of total public school enrollment, the percentage with autism rose from 0.4 to 1.1 percent, and the percentage with developmental delay rose from 0.7 to 0.8 percent."

Read Full Article:

Source:

National Center for Education Statistics Fast Facts Students with disabilities. (2018). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=64

Key Points:

*"The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticides malathion and diazinon were classified as probable carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)."

*"Glyphosate also caused DNA and chromosomal damage in human cells, although it gave negative results in tests using bacteria."

*"Group 2A means that the agent is probably carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals."

Read Full Article:

Source:

IARC Monographs Volume 112: evaluation of five organophosphate insecticides and herbicides. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from https://www.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/MonographVolume112-1.pdf

Key Points:

*p.3 "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN" CAUTION"

*p.7 "This product moves through the plant from the point of foliage contact to and into the root system."

*p.8 "Biological Degradation: Degradation of this product is primarily a biological process carried out by soil microbes."

Read Full Article:

Source:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Notice of Pesticide Registration Name of Pesticide Product Glyphosate 41%. (2016, June 21). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/091543-00001-20160621.pdf

 

Key Points:

*"The jury found unanimously that Monsanto was responsible for Dewayne "Lee" Johnson's non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and should have known the dangers posed by the herbicide glyphosate, which markets as Roundup and the more-concentrated Ranger Pro."

*"The verdict could be a forerunner for the 4,000 lawsuits that have been filed across the country by individuals who claim they were sickened by Roundup."

*"Glyphosate, the world's leading herbicide, was classified as a probable human carcinogen in 2015 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of the World Health Organization."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Egelko, Bob and Fimrite, Peter. (2018, August 10). Monsanto case: Bay Area man with cancer awarded $289 million in damages. Retrieved from https://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Monsanto-case-Bay-Area-man-with-cancer-awarded-13147891.php

Document #30

"MONGLY04272196
 
12/26/1984 Documents Released: 3/15/2017
Monsanto Study: Lifetime Carcinogenicity Study in Mice"
*"This document contains a Monsanto-led study testing N-ntirosoglyphosate (“NNG”) on mice. Before getting a pass from the EPA, Monsanto conducted this one long-term carcinogenicity test of NNG in mice. The testing was conducted outside of IBT laboratories (which Monsanto had used for NNG testing until it was shut down due to fraud).
This study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in malignant lymphomas in male mice. No evidence suggests this study was ever submitted to EPA."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Egelko, Bob and Fimrite, Peter. (2018, August 10). Monsanto case: Bay Area man with cancer awarded $289 million in damages. Retrieved from https://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Monsanto-case-Bay-Area-man-with-cancer-awarded-13147891.php

Document #32

"MONGLY06486905

"4/17/1999 - 4/19/1999 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"

*"Email Exchange Shows Former Monsanto Expert Confirmed Biological Plausibility of Glyphosate as Carcinogen"

*"This document contains email exchanges between various Monsanto personnel wherein Dr. Donna Farmer summarizes the findings of Monsanto's expert, Dr. James Parry: "Dr. Parry concluded on his evaluation of the four articles that glyphosate is capable of producing genotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro by mechanism based upon the production of oxidative damage." at *3."

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #39

MONGLY00923065

"2/12/2001 - 2/13/2001 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
*"Monsanto Internal Email: Employee Expresses ‘Serious Concern’ Over Plausibility of Roundup Formulation Carcinogenicity" *"This document contains email correspondence between various Monsanto personnel wherein Dr. Mark Martens states: “
I don’t know for sure how suppliers would react - but if somebody came to me and said they wanted to test Roundup I know how I would react - with serious concern. We have to really think about doing formulations even if they are not on the market . . . glyphosate is still in there and could get caught up in some false positive finding. at *1"

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #40 

MONGLY04683604 "2/20/2001 Documents Released: 3/15/2017

*"Monsanto Finds Levels of N-ntirosoglyphosate (NNG) Exceed the Limit of 1 ppm" 

*"This document contains email correspondence between Eric Haupfear (Monsanto Director of Process Technology) and others in monitoring NNG levels of glyphosate. In 2000, Haupfear found that the levels of NNG exceeded the limit of 1 ppm due to a manufacturing defect."

*“Concentration of NNG in Glyphosate: (0.0000143 / 10.24) = 1.4 ppm!!”

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #42 

MONGLY00891769 "9/10/2001 Documents Released: 3/15/2017" 

*"Donna Farmer: Mark Martens’ Work with Dr. James Parry “Almost Landed Us with Parry Calling Glyphosate Genotoxic” 

*"The document contains email correspondence between Donna Farmer (Monsanto Toxicologist) and Daniel Goldstein. Farmer includes a previous correspondence in which William (Bill) Graham tells colleagues: “One of the problems with email - everyone can start running around looking for solutions. Can we keep this to a limited number of people as we have the opinions and the solutions in Europe.” 

*"The email also references Mark Martens’ work with Dr. James Parry, a highly respected expert in genotoxicity. According to Farmer: “Mark was not managing that well and that almost landed us with Parry calling glyphosate genotoxic....so we had to do these additional studies to make him happy and if it had not been for Larry Kier we would be in dog.......”"

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #44

MONGLY00885526

MONGLY00885527 

"4/19/2002 - 4/25/2002 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
"Monsanto Executive Admits Studies Demonstrate Formulated Roundup ‘Does the Damage’ AND Heydens Discusses European Commission’s Request for Endocrine Disruptor Information"
*"
This document is an email correspondence between Drs. William Heydens and Donna Farmer, wherein the two discuss various studies which observed adverse effects by the formulated Roundup product.  Specifically, Dr. Farmer acknowledges: “[t]he interest point is glyphosate all basicially [sic] had no effect the formulated product did - does this point us to the coformulants - sufactants? [sic]” at *2.  Dr. Heydens also admits, after discussing with Monsanto consultant John DeSesso, that “we are in pretty good shape with glyphosate but vulnerable with surfactants. . . What I’ve been hearing from you is that this continues to be the case with these studies - Glyphosate is OK but the formulated product (and thus the surfactant) does the damage.” at *1."
*"In MONGLY00885527, Heydens and Farmer discuss the European Commission’s request for endocrine disruptor information from plant protection product (PPP) manufacturers and how the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) and its sub-group European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) plotted to provide no information. Heydens on “free studies”: “I want to understand what they all say, and see if there is anything more we should be doing besides the usual ‘pay no attention to the man behind the curtain’… Even though no testing requirements have been implemented for several years now, this damn endocrine crap just doesn't go away, does it."

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #45

MONGLY00922458

"11/21/2003-11/24/2003 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
*"Internal Monsanto Email: ‘You Cannot Say That Roundup is not a Carcinogen’"
*"This document contains email correspondence between Donna Farmer and Sekhar Natarajan, in which Dr. Farmer discusses the potential adverse effects of the formulated Roundup product, conceding that “
you cannot say that Roundup is not a carcinogen…we have not done the necessary testing on the formulation to make that statement.” at *1-2"

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #46 

MONGLY00925905 "9/23/2004 Documents Released: 3/15/2017" 

*"Email Showing Monsanto Had Long Known of Nntirosoglyphosate (“NNG”) in Roundup" 

*"This document contains correspondence between Michael Cunningham (Monsanto) and several other colleagues discussing a counter argument against N-ntirosoglyphosate (“NNG”). The email quotes Dr. Ruth Shearer in 1984: "The problem with glyphosate... is that it combines readily with nitrites, found in normal human saliva, to form an N-nitroso compound called Nnitrosoglyphosate. Although that particular compound has not been tested as a cancer-causing agent, over 75% of all other N-nitroso compounds so tested have been shown to cause cancer by way of tumour formation.NNG is found in glyphosate-based formulations such as Roundup, but not necessarily in glyphosate evaluated in animal bioassays. The public will not find any reference to NNG on the Roundup® label. NNG is part of a family of carcinogenic chemicals known as “nitroso compounds”. Nitroso compounds have consistently been identified as carcinogenic following analysis. NNG forms whenever glyphosate interacts with nitrites, whether outside or inside the body."

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #50

MONGLY01179185

"10/14/2008 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
*"Internal Email from
2008: Monsanto Executive Long Aware of Glyphosate Link to non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
*"This document contains email correspondence wherein Dean Nasser (Monsanto) sends a “Beyond Pesticides” publication to Dr. Donna Farmer.  The publication references
a study which found positive association between glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.  Dr. Farmer responds: “We have been aware of this paper for awhile and knew it would only be a matter of time before the activists pick it up… how do we combat this?” at *1."

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #58 

MONGLY03549275 –  MONGLY03549280 "5/8/2014 Documents Released: 3/15/2017"

*"Monsanto Executive Steven Adams on NNG Issue: “Don’t Want to Draw Attention to the Toxicity of Our Product”"

*"This document contains email correspondence between Stephen Adams, Dan Jenkins and others discussing the NNG issue. Stephen Adams: “I wouldn't push the NNG issue too hard don't want to draw attention to the toxicity of our product.”"

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #64

MONGLY00990361

 "3/13/2015 - 3/17/2015 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
*"Monsanto Internal Email:
Company Executive Admits to Low Level of Formaldehyde in  Roundup"
*"This document contains an email from Dr. William Heydens to Mr. Josh Monken (Monsanto) wherein Dr. Heydens
admits to the “Low level presence of formaldehyde” (carcinogen by inhalation) in Roundup; and “Low level presence of NNG (N-nitroso-glyphosate) in Roundup - many N-Nitroso compounds are carcinogenic.”"

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

 

Document #66

MONGLY01183933

Key Points:

"8/6/2015 - 8/7/2015 Documents Released: 8/1/2017"
 *"
Email Detailing Monsanto Suspicions That Formulated Roundup Can Lead to Tumor Production"
 *"This document contains email correspondence between various Monsanto personnel regarding the Roundup formulation and the respective effects of glyphosate and surfactants, wherein
Dr. William Heydens states that “surfactant in the formulation will come up in the tumor promotion skin study because we think it played a role there.” At *3."

Read Full Text:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Document #115

MONGLY01249878

Key Points:

"3/3/2010
*"Monsanto Executives: Subversion of Science on Glyphosate Like "Playing Whack-A-Mole""
*"In this email,
Dr. Daniel Goldstein admits that he and Dr. Donna Farmer "have been playing Whack-a-Mole for years," beating back scientists who call into question the safety of glyphosate based herbicides like Roundup."

Read Full Article:

Source:

The Monsanto Papers. (2018). Retrieved from http://baumhedlundlaw.com/pdf/monsanto-documents/monsanto-documents-chart-101217.pdf#page=8

Key Points:

*"“I have cancer, and I don’t want these serious issues in HED [EPA’s Health Effects Division] to go unaddressed before I go to my grave. I have done my duty.”

*"It’s been four years since Marion Copley, a 30-year EPA toxicologist, wrote those words to her then-colleague, Jess Rowland, accusing him of conniving with Monsanto to bury the agency’s own hard scientific evidence that it is “essentially certain” that glyphosate, the key ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup weedkiller, causes cancer."

*"Copley has since died. But her letter suggesting that EPA officials colluded with Monsanto to hide the truth about Monsanto’s flagship weedkiller has been given new life."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Paul, Katherine. (2017, March 23). Congress Must Investigate Collusion Between Monsanto and the EPA, Now. Retrieved from https://www.organicconsumers.org/essays/congress-must-investigate-collusion-between-monsanto-and-epa-now

Key Points:

*"Glyphosate was originally designed as a chelating agent and I strongly believe that is the identical process involved in its tumor formation, which is strongly supported by literature."

*"Glyphosate is genotoxic, a key cancer mechanism."

*"It is essentially certain that glyphosate causes cancer."

*"You and Anna Lowit intimidated staff on CARC and changed HIARC and HASPOC final reports to favor industry."

Read Full Article:

Source:

Case 3:16-md-02741-VC Document 141-1. (2017, February 10). Retrieved from https://www.organicconsumers.org/sites/default/files/marioncopleyletter.pdf