Many Toxic Pesticides Systemic in Crops

Toxins in Every Cell of  Plants

Perception: Pesticide residues are only found on the surface of foods and therefore can be washed off or peeled off.

Reality: Many highly toxic pesticides are systemic in plants. They cannot be washed off, peeled off, cooked off, steamed off, or processed off. The pesticide residues remain toxic in foods.

Key Points:

*"A systemic pesticide is a form of pesticide that is water soluble and absorbed by a plant when applied to its roots, seeds, or leaves.

*"Once the pesticide is absorbed by the target plant, the chemicals in the pesticide will circulate through a plant's system. This results in the plant killing any insect or pest that feeds on it."

*"When a systemic pesticide is administered to a plant, the chemicals in the pesticide are transported through a plant's vascular system, which is similar to the human circulatory system."

*"There is also a concern for plants that are cultivated for food, as systemic pesticide residues cannot be washed off, as they are part of a plant's tissue."

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Source:

Maximum Yield, Systemic Pesticide. (no date listed). Retrieved from https://www.maximumyield.com/definition/1932/systemic-pesticide

Key Points:

*"Pesticides can be absorbed by plants through the leaves and roots. Pesticides that are taken up by plants can move (translocate) to other parts of the plant."

*"Herbicides that are taken up by the plant (systemic herbicides) often are designed to interfere with the plants development by mimicking plant hormones. This type of herbicide can take longer to act, but they can also be more effective because they are working throughout the plant."

*"Systemic insecticides move throughout the plant. When insects feed on the plant, the insecticide can kill them."

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Source:

National Pesticide Information Center,  Plant-Pesticide Interaction. (2015, November 4). Retrieved from http://npic.orst.edu/envir/plantint.html

 

Key Points:

*”This document reviews the environmental fate and persistence of dicamba—a synthetic systemic

herbicide that is used in agricultural, industrial, and residential settings (Bunch & Gervais, 2012; Durkin & Bosch, 2004; EPA, 2006).”

*”Dicamba is commonly applied to right-of-ways, asparagus, barley, corn grasses, oats, proso millet, sorghum, soybeans, sugarcane, wheat, golf courses, and residential lawns (EPA, 2006).”

*”Dicamba mimics plant auxin hormones that stimulate cell elongation and cellular differentiation leading to rapid growth of stems, petioles, and leaves (Bunch & Gervais, 2012).”

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Source:

Joanna Nishimura, Kate Gazzo, and Robert Budd. Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Dicamba. Retrieved from https://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/fatememo/dicamba.pdf

Journal of a Pesticide Reform: “DICAMBA Factsheet”

Key Points:

 *”Like phenoxy herbicides, dicamba mimics auxins, a type of plant hormone, and causes abnormal growth by affecting cell divi- sion.3,4 Dicamba acts systemically in plants (throughout the entire plant) after it is absorbed through leaves and roots. It is easily transported throughout the plant, and also 11 accumulates in new leaves.”

*"Humans are exposed to dicamba while they or their neighbors are using the herbicide in the yard or garden, while using it on the job, through drinking of contaminated water, and through eating contaminated food. The result is that large numbers of Americans are contaminated with dicamba."

*"Each year in the United States, about 15 million acres of corn, 1.5 million acres of wheat,1 and 3 million lawns2 are treated with the herbicide dicamba."

*”Dicamba also inhibits an enzyme found in the nervous sytem of most animals, acetyl- cholinesterase.12”

*” In addition, dicamba inhibits the activity of several enzymes in animal livers that detoxify and excrete foreign chemicals.13”

*”Feeding dicamba to rats for 90 days caused decreases in weight and in the amount of food consumed. Increased dead cells and abnormal live cells were found in exposed rats’ livers.17”

*”In humans, exposure to dicamba is associated with the inhibition of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase and an in- creased frequency of a cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

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Source:

Cox, Caroline. (1994, Spring). Journal of Pesticide Reform, Herbicide Factsheet, Dicamba. Retrieved from https://www.panna.org/sites/default/files/dicamba-NCAP.pdf

World Health Organization: “ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITES”

Key Point:

*”Atrazine is a selective systemic herbicide of the chlorotriazine class, used for the control of annual broadleaf and grassy weeds.”

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Source:

https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/dwq_summary_20100701_en.pdf

"Glyphosate Technical Fact Sheet”:

Key Points:

*”Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides with applications in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, lawn, garden, and aquatic environments.1,6 Sites with the largest glyphosate use include soybeans, field corn, pasture and hay.2,6

*”Some plants have been genetically engineered to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola are examples of such plants.4,9 “

*”Glyphosate is absorbed across the leaves and stems of plants and is translocated throughout the plant.1,3

*”The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified glyphosate as Group 2A, "probably carcinogenic to humans".41

*”Glyphosate is absorbed by plant foliage and transported throughout the plant through the phloem.3

*”Glyphosate accumulates in meristems, immature leaves, and underground tissues.4

*”Lettuce, carrots, and barley contained glyphosate residues up to one year after the soil was treated with 3.71 pounds of glyphosate per acre.64,65

*”Glyphosate was not included in compounds tested for by the Food and Drug Adminstration's (FDA) Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program (PRMP), nor in the United States Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program (PDP).”

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Source:

National Pesticide Information Centeer, Glyphosate Technical Fact Sheet. (2015, June). Retrieved from http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/glyphotech.html

NDDC: “NRDC to EPA: Red Flags on Imidacloprid Health Risks”:

Key Points:
*”Imidacloprid is one of the most popular and widespread insecticides in the U.S.”

*” It mimics nicotine and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocking the receptor and thereby preventing nerve cell transmission, leading to paralysis and death in insects. In humans these receptors are found in neuromuscular junctions and the central nervous system.”

*”Imidacloprid is most commonly used on the following crops: rice, cereal, corn, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, fruit, cotton, hops and turf.

*”According to the Pesticide Action Network publicly searchable database, “What’s On My Food”, using data aggregated from public sources including the USDA PDP 2012 data, imidacloprid was detected in the following baby foods and common children’s foods: baby food—applesauce (0.3% of samples); baby food—pears (13.6% of samples); bananas (1.8% of samples); apples (20% of samples); cherries (14% of samples); and grapes (48% of samples).”

*”Moreover, the pesticide’s systemic nature means it cannot just be washed off the surface of these foods prior to consumption. (See U.S. FDA 2015 report)”

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Source:

Sass, Jennifer. (2017, November 29). NRDC to EPA: Red Flags on Imidacloprid Health Risks. Retrieved from https://www.nrdc.org/experts/jennifer-sass/nrdc-epa-red-flags-imidacloprid-health-risks

Key Points:

*Imidacloprid is designed to be effective by contact or ingestion.2 It is a systemic insecticide that translocates rapidly through plant tissues following application.2,10

*”Imidacloprid is moderately toxic if ingested.

*”Rats consumed imidacloprid in their diet for three months at doses of 14, 61, and 300 mg/kg/day for males and 20, 83, and 420 mg/ kg/day for females. Researchers noted reductions in body weight gain, liver damage, and reduced blood clotting function and platelet counts at 61 mg/kg/day in males and 420 mg/kg/day in females.”

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Source: Gervais, J. A.; Luukinen, B.; Buhl, K.; Stone, D. 2010. Imidacloprid Technical Fact Sheet; National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/archive/imidacloprid.html.Citation:

Key Points:

*”A SYSTEMIC AND FOLIAR INSECTICIDE FOR USE ON FIELD CROPS, COTTON, SOYBEANS, POTATO, PEANUTS and TOBACCO; IN CITRUS, TREE NUT, and FRUIT ORCHARDS; ON FIELD and GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES; ON BERRY, BUSH and VINE CROPS; and ON OTHER LISTED CROPS
*”
CAUTION

*”Since IMIDACLOPRID 2FL is continuously taken into the roots over a long period of time, the earlier IMIDACLOPRID 2FL is available to a developing plant, the earlier the protection begins.”

 

*”The systemic nature of IMIDACLOPRID 2FL allows movement from roots through the xylem tissue to all vegetative parts of the plant, which results in extended residual activity of IMIDACLOPRID 2FL, the control of insects and the prevention and/or reduction of virus transmission or symptom expression, and plant health benefits.

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Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Amended Label adding pollinator protection language, Product name: IMIDACLOPRID 2fl. 92014, (2014, March 18). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/086363-00008-20140318.pdf

 

"Bayer Crop Science: “Movento 100 SC”

Key points:

*”Movento® is a new 2-way-systemic insecticide for the control of sucking pests mainly for fruits and vegetables. With Movento® you need to spray to the leaves.”

*”Movento® is developed globally in a wide range of crops such as: Vegetables, Citrus, Pome- & Stone-fruits, Nuts, Grape, Hops, Potato, Tropical fruits, Cotton & Soybean.”

*Used on apples, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, citrus, cucumber, grapes, lettuce, pears, peppers, potatoes, Stone fruit (Almonds, apricots, peaches, plums, nectarine), tomatoes"

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Source:

CropScience/Jordan, Movento 100 SC. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.jordan.cropscience.bayer.com/en/Products/Insecticides/Movento-SC-100.aspx

"Farm Journsl’s AGPRO: “Movento Insecticide approved in U.S.”

Key Points:

*”Movento insecticide (spirotetramat), a much-anticipated new foliar product from Bayer CropScience, has been registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for immediate use on citrus, pome and stone fruits, grapes, tree nuts, Christmas trees, hops and vegetables.

*”After application, the 2-way systemic material moves upward and downward through the plant's vascular system, ensuring even and continuous distribution and better overall protection of young shoots, leaves and roots.

Read Full Article:

Source: 

AgPro, Movento Insecticide approved in U.S. (2011, April 18). Retrieved from https://www.agprofessional.com/article/movento-insecticide-approved-us

Bayer Crop Science-Movento

Key Points:

*”On the basis of information furnished by the registrant, the above named pesticide is hereby registered/reregistered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.”

*”CAUTION”

*”Harmful if swallowed or absorbed through skin.”

*”MOVENTO is a suspension concentrate formulation and is active primarily by ingestion against immature insect life stages.”

*”Sufficient leaf tissue must be present for uptake and translocation of this product; due to this requirement, do not apply prior to petal-fall on pome fruits, stone fruits, and tree nut crops. Following application to plant foliage, MOVENTO is fully systemic, moving through phloem and xylem to all plant tissues including new shoot, leaf and root growth; systemicity and efficacy may be hindered during periods of cold temperatures, under drought conditions, or when plants are not actively growing.”

*”Crops of Crop Group 10 including: Calamondin, Citrus citron, Citrus hybrids (Citrus spp., includes chironja, tangelo and tangor), Grapefruit, Kumguat, Lemon, Lime, Mandarinltanoerinel, Oranoe (sweet and sour), Pummelo, and Satsuma mandarin.”

Read Full Article:

Source:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc Office of Pesticide Programs, Notice of Pesticide Registration, Name of Pesticide  Product: Movento. (2008, June 30). Retrieved from  https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/000264-01050-20080630.pdf

 

Key Points:

*”Movento insecticide (spirotetramat), a much-anticipated new foliar product from Bayer CropScience, has been registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for immediate use on citrus, pome and stone fruits, grapes, tree nuts, Christmas trees, hops and vegetables.

*”After application, the 2-way systemic material moves upward and downward through the plant's vascular system, ensuring even and continuous distribution and better overall protection of young shoots, leaves and roots.”

Read Full Article:

Source:

AGPRO Movento Insecticide approved in U.S. (2011, April 18). Retrieved from https://www.agprofessional.com/article/movento-insecticide-approved-us 

Key Points:

*”Washing or peeling fruits and vegetables won’t protect you from systemic pesticides spread throughout the plant's tissues.”

*”Systemic pesticides are chemicals that are actually absorbed by a plant when applied to seeds, soil, or leaves. The chemicals then circulate through the plant’s tissues, killing the insects that feed on them.

*”Imidacloprid can be applied to many vegetables (including tomatoes and leafy greens) right up to the day they’re harvested.”

*”Thiamethoxam was first approved as a seed treatment for corn in 2002, and thiamethoxam products that are applied to the soil have since been approved for use on most vegetable and fruit crops.”

*”Clothianidin is used as a seed treatment on canola, cereals, corn and sugar beets, and as a soil treatment for potatoes.”

*”Dinotefuran can be applied to soil or sprayed on leafy greens, potatoes, and cucumber family crops.”

*”For example, 74 percent of conventionally grown fresh lettuce and 70 percent of broccoli samples showed imidacloprid residues. Clothianidin was found in potatoes, thiamethoxam showed up in strawberries and sweet peppers, and some collard green samples were laced with dinotefuran.”

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Source:

Pleasant, Barbara. (2010, October/November). Systemic Pesticides: Chemicals You Can’t Wash Off. Retrieved from https://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/environmental-policy/systemic-pesticides-zmaz10onzraw

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