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TDA Allows Highly Toxic Pesticides in

School Foods:

Children Are Not Protected Under Texas IPM

From Oral Pesticide Exposure:

Perception: Pesticide residues found in foods served to children in Texas Public Schools are non-toxic according to the Texas Department of Agriculture's Integrated Pest Management Program's pesticide toxicity classification system.

 

Reality: Many foods served daily to students contain pesticides classified as highly toxic according to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program's pesticide toxicity classification system.

Key Points:

*"Pesticide Classification: All pesticides used on school district property must be classified as Green, Yellow, or Red."

*"'Green' products are those approved for use at any time at the discretion of any licensed pesticide applicator. "Yellow" products require the IPM coordinator to obtain written approval from a certified applicator (commercial or noncommercial). "Red" products require written approval from both a certified applicator and the IPM Coordinator."

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Source:

Texas Department of Agriculture, Commissioner Sid Miller, School Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  Retrieved from http://www.texasagriculture.gov/RegulatoryPrograms/Pesticides/StructuralPestControlService/SchoolIntegratedPestManagement.aspx

Key points:

*"Green Category pesticides pose the least potential hazard to people and the environment."

*"For both indoor and outdoor application, students must not be present during the application but can reenter the area when the application is complete, unless the product or district requires a different reentry interval."

*"Yellow Category products usually include the Environmental Protection Agency Signal word CAUTION on the label."

*"These pesticides require approval by a certified applicator, and you must provide a copy of the approval form to the IPM coordinator."

*"Red Category pesticides carry EPA signal words such as WARNING and DANGER on the label to indicate the highest potential risk to applicators or the environment. These products contain an active ingredient that, in Texas, designated them to be a restricted-use pesticide, a state-limited-use pesticide, or a regulated herbicide."

*"Before applying a Red Category pesticide, the licensee must provide to the IPM coordinator written justification for its use and receive from the coordinator signed approval."

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Source:

Merchant, Michael and Hurley, Janet. (2017, July). Recognizing Green Category Pesticides for Use in Texas Schools. Retrieved from https://schoolipm.tamu.edu/files/2018/02/ENTO-061.pdf

Key Points:

*"Signal Words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe acute (short-term) toxicity of the formulated pesticide product."

*"Products with the signal word CAUTION are lower in toxicity."

*"WARNING: Indicates the pesticide product is moderately toxic if eaten, absorbed through the skin, inhaled, or it causes moderate eye or skin irritation."

*"DANGER: Means that the pesticide product is highly toxic by at least one route of exposure."

*Alternately, it may be highly toxic if eaten, absorbed through the skin, or inhaled. If this is the case, then the word "POISON" must also be included in red letters on the front of the panel of the product label."

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Source:

Forestry Distributing, EPA Signal Words. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.forestrydistributing.com/signalwords

Key Points:

*Toxicity RED

*"CAUTION"

*"POISON"

*Contains picture of SKULL AND CROSSBONES

*"KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN."

*"HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED."

*Approved for use on: soybeans, canola, corn and sugar beet, preharvest applications in wheat, barley, oats, canola (rapeseed), flax (including low linolenic acid varieties), peas, lentils, dry beans, soybeans, chickpeas, dried lupins, dried fava beans, canary seed and forages; in pasture renovation; in forage, legume and grass establishments,; in tree crops including apple, pear, cherry, plum, peach, nectarines, apricot, filbert, hazelnut, walnut, chestnut, Japanese heartnut; in grapes, cranberries, blueberries and strawberry; in sugar beets; in asparagus; in North America ginseng; in tree plantings; and grasses for seed production 

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Source:

Roundup WeatherMAX with Transorb 2 TechnologyLiquid Herbicide. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.roundup.ca/_uploads/documents/WMAX_May2013.pdf#page=1

Key Points:

*p.2 "RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE"

*p.2 "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN."

*P.2 "HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN."

*p.2 "NOTE TO PHYSICIAN: This product contains diazinon, an organophosphate that inhibits cholinesterase."

*p.3 "REPEATED EXPOSURES TO CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS SUCH AS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS PRODUCT MAY, WITHOUT WARNING, CAUSE PROLONGED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO VERY SMALL DOSES OF ANY CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR."

*p.4-8 Approved for use on: almonds, apricots, blackberries, blueberries, boysenberries, cherries, cranberries, dewberries, loganberries, nectarines, peaches, plums, prunes, raspberries, strawberries, beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, casaba melons, cauliflower, collards, Crenshaw melons, endive, ginseng, honeydew melons, kale, lettuce (head), lettuce (leaf), muskmelons, mustard greens, onions (bulb and green), Persian melons, radishes, rutabagas, spinach, tomatoes, watermelons

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Source:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Division, Notice of Pesticide Rerestration, Name of Pesticide Product Drexel Diazinon Insecticide. (2006, December 7). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/019713-00091-20061207.pdf

Key Points:

*p.1 "Restricted Use Pesticide"

*p.1 "CAUTION: Harmful if swallowed or absorbed through the skin."

*p.2 "Since this product acts mainly through root absorption, its effectiveness depends on rainfall or irrigation to move into the root zone."

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Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. (2005, September 29). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/019713-00011-20050929.pdf

Key points:

*"A potent endocrine disrupter, atrazine interferes with hormonal activity of animals and humans at extremely low doses."

*"Evidence for the carcinogenic potential of atrazine is growing — exposure has been linked to elevated risk of breast and prostate cancer."

*"Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the U.S., and is found in 94% of U.S drinking water tested by the USDA — more often than any other pesticide."

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Source:

Pesticide Action Network (PAN), Atrazine.  Retrieved from http://www.panna.org/resources/atrazine

Key Points:

*"The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) put out a report in 2009 that showed widespread atrazine contamination in drinking water, posing a "dangerous problem" that was not communicated to the people most at risk."

*"However, independent scientists have previously cited evidence that the chemical may be carcinogenic, noting:8,9

"In summary, the Panel concluded that the cancers for which there is suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential include: ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, hairy-cell leukemia and thyroid cancer."

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Source:

Dr. Mercola. (2016, June 21). Atrazine — Second Most Common Used Herbicide in U.S. Retrieved from https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/06/21/atrazine-herbicide.aspx

Atrazine Herbicide

Key Points:

*”Farmers use about 70 million pounds of atrazine in the U.S. every year. More than 90 percent is used on corn. But atrazine is also sprayed on soybeans, sugarcane, wheat, oats, and sorghum, among other crops.

*”Atrazine is also often mixed with other pesticides when it’s applied. The environmental and health effects of these mixtures are poorly studied and not yet well understood.

*"The EPA’s report found that levels of this herbicide in the environment exceed what the agency considers “levels of concern for chronic risk” by as much as 22, 198, and 62 times for birds, mammals, and fish, respectively."

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Source:

Grossman, Elizabeth. What You Need to Know About the EPA's Assessment of Atrazine. (2016, June 6). Retrieved from https://civileats.com/2016/06/06/what-you-need-to-know-about-the-epas-assessment-of-atrazine/

Key Points:

*p.1 "Restricted Use Pesticide"

*p.1 "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN"

*P.1 "WARNING"

*p.1 "Note to Physician: This product contains an organophosphate that inhibits cholinesterase."

*p.1 "May be fatal if swallowed."

*p.4-6 Approved for use on: grapefruit, lemons, oranges, other citrus fruit, cranberries, field corn, sweet corn, figs, grapes, mint, nectarines, peaches, onions, peanuts, soybeans, strawberries, sunflowers, sugar beets, sweet potatoes, tobacco, apples, pears, plums, prunes, almonds, filberts, walnuts, pecans, peaches, nectarines, tree nuts, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, collards, la;e, kohlrabi, turnips, radishes, rutabagas

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Source:

Quali-Pro, Chlorpyrifos 4E Specimen Label.  Retrieved from http://msds.mkap.com/Insecticides/Chlorpyrifos.pdf

Key Points:

*"Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used in agriculture primarily on cotton, oranges, corn, and almonds, among many other crops."

*" Exposures also result from eating food contaminated with chlorpyrifos residues."

*"Chlorpyrifos is found in particularly high levels in children."

*"Children (6–11 years) showed levels almost twice as high as those of adults. Chronic exposure levels were 4.6 times the “acceptable” level for children and 3.0 times the “acceptable” level for youth (12–19 years)."

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Source:

Pesticide Action Network, Chlorpyrifos Factsheet. (2006, October). Retrieved from https://www.panna.org/sites/default/files/ChlorpyrifosFactsheet2006.pdf

Key Points:

* Active Ingredient: Chlorpyrifos

*"Restricted use Pesticide"

*"WARNING"

*"May Be Fatal if Swallowed"

* Approved for use on: broccoli, raab, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cavalo broccoli, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, kohlrabi, mizuna, mustard greens, turnips, alfalfa, apple tree trunk, asparagus, Brassica (cole), leafy vegetables, citrus fruits (including calamondin, chironja, citrus citron, citrus hybrids, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, mandarin (tangerine), pummelo, satsuma mandarin, sour orange, sweet orange, tangelo, tangor), corn (Field, Sweet, Seed), cotton, cranberry, grape, legume vegetables (Succulent or Dried), legume vegetables (Including adzuki bean, asparagus bean, bean, blackeyed pea, broad bean (dry and succulent), catjang, chickpea, Chinese longbean, cowpea, crowder pea, dwarf pea, edible pod pea, English pea, fava bean, field bean, field pea, garbanzo bean, garden pea, grain lupin, grean pea, guar, hyacinth bean, jackbean, kidney bean, lablab bean, lentil, lima bean, moth bean, mung bean, navy bean, pea, pigeon pea, pinto bean, rice bean, runner bean, snap bean, snow pea, southern pea, apple, cherry, nectarine, peach pear, plum, prune

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Source:

Specimen Label, Dow AgroSciences, Lorsban Advanced Insecticide. (2014, June 10). Retrieved from http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld8M4036.pdf

Key Points:

*"KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN"

*"Harmful if Swallowed"

*Approved for use on: Alfalfa, Clover, Apricots, Avocados, Cherries, Figs, Nectarines, Peaches, Pecans, Beets, Radishes, Dandelions, Eggplant, Endive, Garlic, Horseradish, Leeks, Parsley, Parsnips, Peppers, Salsify, Shallots, Spinach, Swiss Chard, Watercress, Beans (dry and succulent), Blackberries, Raspberries, Cranberries, Strawberries, Cabbage, Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Kale, Mustard Greens, Turnips, Celery, Cucumbers, Grapefruit, Lemons, Limes, Oranges, Tangerines, Tangelos, Kumquats, Corn, Cotton, Grapes, Grass, Lettuce, Mushrooms, Onions, Pasture and Ragland, Peas, Potatoes, Rice, Barley, Oats, Rye, Wheat, Squash, Tomatoes

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Source:

C & P Press. (2000). Malathion 8 EC Specimen Label. Retrieved from https://gcrec.ifas.ufl.edu/static/docs/pdf/strawberry-pathology/MSDS-pesticides/malathion8.pdf

Key Points:

*"Malathion is an insecticide in the chemical family known as organophosphates."

*"You could also be exposed to residues of malathion if you ate food that had been treated with this pesticide."

*"In both humans and animals, malathion travels to the liver and kidneys and affects the nervous system."

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Source:

Malathion General Fact Sheet, National Pesticide Information Center. (2011, May 5). Retrieved from http://npic.orst.edu/factsheeets/malagen.html

Key Points:

*p.1 "Restricted Use Pesticide"

*p.1 "NEVER PUT INTO FOOD, DRINK OR OTHER CONTAINERS."

*p.1  "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN" "DANGER"

*p.1 "POISON" Contains picture of SKULL and CROSSBONES.

*p.9 "Rain occurring 30 minutes or more after application will have no effect on the  activity of PARA-SHOT 3.0 because it is rapidly absorbed by the weed foliage."

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Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office ofvChemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Subject: Notification per PR Notice 98-10 (alternate brand name) Paraquat Concentrate. (2011, May 18). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/083529-00027-20110518.pdf

Key Points:

*p.1 "Paraquat is the most highly acutely toxic herbicide to be marketed over the last 60 years."

*p.2 "Paraquat damages the lungs, heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, central nervous system, liver, muscles and spleen, causing multi-organ failure, as well as damaging the skin and eyes."

*p.2 "The California Environmental Protection Agency states that paraquat can penetrate the nervous system, is a neurotoxicant, and impacts brain functions. Exposure to paraquat, even in relatively low doses, during critical periods in childhood may adversely affect the development of brain functions."

*p. 5"Paraquat is now being promoted as an alternative to glyphosate to overcome the increasing problem of glyphosate resistance in countries with widespread use of Roundup on GM crops (Paraquat Information Centre 2010b). 

*p. 5 "Paraquat is a fast-acting, non-selective contact herbicide that is absorbed by the foliage." 

*p.5 " Other major crop uses are for Maize, orchards, soybeans, vegetables, potatoes, rice, and cotton. It is used for wheat, apples, oranges, coffee, cocoa, and rubber. It is used as a pre-harvest defoliant or desicant on crops such as cereals, cotton, beans, hops, sugar cane, pineapple, soy, potatoes, and sunflowers; and as a post-harvest desiccant to speed up removal of spent plants such as tomato plants."

*p.9 "After oral intake, there is high concentration in the liver and kidneys, which then reduces. Plasma concentration is relatively stable for 30 hrs, and concentration in the lungs increases. It is actively concentrated in the lungs (Kemi 2006)"

*p.16 "Exposure to paraquat, even in relatively low doses, during critical periods in childhood may alter biochemical factors that result in "re-programming of the signal transduction pathways", which may adversely affect the development of brain functions. The immature brain is highly susceptible to the oxidative stress caused by paraquat."

*p. 28 "Residues in food are stable and degrade only very slowly in storage: there was no decrease in residue levels in ground samples of prunes, banana, cabbage, potato, carrot, tomato, maize (grain, forage, fodder and silage), wheat grain, or coffee beans stored in a deep freezer at a temperature <-15 C over 46 months; and not decrease in levels of residues in meat, milk and eggs under storage for up to 28 months (JMPR 2004)"

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Source:

Watts, Muriel PhD. (2011, February). Paraguay, Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from http://wssroc.agron.ntu.edu.tw/note/Paraquat.pdf

Key Points:

*"Paraquat is a toxic chemical that is widely used as an herbicide (plant killer), primarily for weed and grass control."

*"The US Environmental Protection Agency classifies paraquat as “restricted use.” This means that it can be used only by people who are licensed applicators."

"Eating or drinking paraquat-contaminated food or beverages could poison people."

*"After paraquat enters the body, it is distributed to all areas of the body. Paraquat causes toxic chemical reactions to occur throughout many parts of the body, primarily the lungs, liver, and kidneys."

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Source:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Paraguat. (2018, April 4). Retrieved from https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/paraquat/basics/facts.asp

Key Points:

*"It is used as a herbicide, plant growth regulator, and a desiccant."

*"Repeated exposure to Diquat Dibromide may cause clouding of the eye lenses (cataracts).

*"Diquat Dibromide may damage the liver, kidneys and lungs."

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Source:

New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet, Common Name: Diquat Dibromide. (2001, January). Retrieved from https://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0808.pdf

Key Points:

*"Specific Target Organ Toxicity (STOT) Repeated Exposure-Category 1

*"DANGER"

*Hazard symbol: SKULL AND CROSSBONES

*"Harmful if swallowed"

*H372-Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure."

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Source;

Syngenta Safety Data Sheet, Reglone Desiccant. (2016, July 29). Retrieved from https://www.syngenta.ca/pdf/msds/Reglone_26396_en_SDS.pdf

Key points:

*Toxicity RED

*"DANGER"

*"POISON"

*Hazard Symbol: Skull and Crossbones

*"WARNING!" 

*"HARMFUL OR FATAL IF SWALLOWED"

*"Do not eat, drink, handle or use tobacco, or apply cosmetics in areas where there is potential for exposure to this product."

*Active ingredient: Diquat ion

*"EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO DIQUAT MAY CAUSE A HEALTH HAZARD."

*"Do not contaminate food, feed, domestic or irrigation water supplies, lakes, streams and ponds."

*"The use of REGLONE Desiccant facilitates direct combining of many field crops such as lentils, peas, canola, mustard or legumes."

*Approved for use on: "Beans, canola, flax, lentils, mustard, peas, sunflower, legume forage seed crops, sweet white lupins, Vegetable and field crops, fruit"

*Approved for use on crops: "Beans - White & Red Kidney, Soybeans and Adzuki beans, Canola, Chickpeas, Flax (including low linolenic acid varieties) , Legumes (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, red clover and white clover) Seed Crops, Lentils,Mustard (condiment type only), Oats - Corn Spurry Control, Peas - Field or Dry,Potato - Vine Killing, Sweet White Lupins, Sunflowers

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Source:

Reglone Desiccant. (2016, September 13). Retrieved from https://www.syngenta.ca/pdf/labels/REGLONE_Desiccant_26396_en_pamphlet.pdf

Key Points:

*"Suspected of damaging fertility."

8"Suspected of  damaging the unborn child."

*Approved for use on Brussels sprouts, lettuce, carrots, kale, collards, broccoli,/calabrese, cabbage, cauliflower

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Source:

Safety Information Bayer Movento. (2017 to Date). Retrieved from http://www.pcs.agriculture.gov.ie/media/pesticides/content/products/labels/04101%20-%20Movento%20-%202017%20to%20date.pdf

“Bayer CropScience SAFETY DATA SHEET”

Key Points:

*”Skin sensitisation: Category 1B Reproductive toxicity: Category 2”

*”Signal word: Warning

*”Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child.”

*”Harmful if swallowed.

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Source:

Bayer Crop Science Safety Data Sheet, Movento MPC. (2015, September 15). Retrieved fromhttps://assets.greenbook.net/14-23-22-14-03-2018-mp9PC009.pdf 

Key Points:

*”Movento® is a new 2-way-systemic insecticide for the control of sucking pests mainly for fruits and vegetables. With Movento® you need to spray to the leaves.”

*”Movento® is developed globally in a wide range of crops such as: Vegetables, Citrus, Pome- & Stone-fruits, Nuts, Grape, Hops, Potato, Tropical fruits, Cotton & Soybean.

*Approved for use on: apples, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, citrus, cucumber, grapes, lettuce, pears, peppers, potatoes, Stone fruit (Almonds, apricots, peaches, plums, nectarine), tomatoes

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Source:

Bayer Crop Science Movento 100 SC. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.jordan.cropscience.bayer.com/en/Products/Insecticides/Movento-SC-100.aspx

 

Product Name: IMIDACLOPRID 2FL

Key points:

*"A SYSTEMIC AND FOLIAR INSECTICIDE FOR USE ON FIELD CROPS, COTTON, SOYBEANS, POTATO, PEANUTS and TOBACCO; IN CITRUS, TREE NUT, and FRUIT ORCHARDS; ON FIELD and GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES; ON BERRY, BUSH and VINE CROPS; and ON OTHER LISTED CROPS."

* Approved for use on "Chayote(fruit), Chinese waxgourd (Chinese preserving melon), Citron melon, Cuban pumpkin, Cucumber, Gherkin, Gourd (edible, includes hyotan, cucuzza, hechima, Chinese cucumber), Muskmelon (hybrids and/or cultivars of Cucumis melon including true cantaloupe, cantaloupe, casaba, Crenshaw melon, golden pershaw melon, hoheydew melon, honey balls, mango melon, Persian melon, pineapple melon, Santa Glaus melon, snake melon, and Winter melon), Pumpkin, Squash, (includes summer squash types such as: butternut squash calabaza, crookneck squash, Hubbard squash, scallop squash, straightneck squash, vegetable marrow and zucchini, and winter squash types such as acorn squash, and spaghetti squash), Watermelon (includes hybrids and/or varieties of Citulius lanatus)."

*Approved for use on "FRUITING VEGETABLES Eggplant, Ground cherry, Okra, Pepper (including bell, chili, cooking, pimento and sweet), Tomato, Pepinos, Tpmatillo"

*Approved for use on "HEAD AND STEM BRASSICA VEGETABLES Broccoli, Broccoli raab (rapini), Brussels sprouts, cabbage, Cauliflower, Cavalo broccoli, Chinese (gai Ion) broccoli, Chinese (box choy) cabbage, Chinese (napa) cabbage, Chinese mustard (gai choy) cabbage, Collards, Kale, Kohlrabi, Mizuna, Mustard greens, Mustard Spinach, Rape greens, Turnip (tops or leaves)."

*Approved for use on "LEAFY GREENS VEGETABLES Amaranth (leafy amaranth, Chinese spinach, tampala), Arugula (Roquette), Chervil, Chrysanthemum (edible ledved and garland), Cilantro, Corn salad, Cress (garden), Cress (upland,) yellow rocket, winter cress), Dandelion, dock (sorrel), Endive (escarole), Lettuce (head and leaf), Orach, Parsley, Purslane (garden and winter), Radicchio (red chicory), Spinach (including New Zealand and vine (Malabar spinach, Indian spinach), Watercress1 (upland)."

*Approved for use on "LEGUME VEGETABLES except soybean, dry: 4 Edible'Podded and Succulent Shelled Pea and Bean and Dried Shelled Pea arid Bean including, Bean (Lupinus spp., includes grain lupin, sweet lupin, white lupin, and white -, sweet lupin); Bean (Phsaeolus spp., includes field bean, kidney bean, lima bean, navy bean, pinto bean, runner bean, snap.bean, tepary bean, wax bean); Bean (Vigna spp., includes adzuki bean, asparagus bean, blackeyed pea cathang, Chinese longbean cowpeas, Growder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean); Pea (Pisum spp., includes dwarf pea, edible-pod pea, English pea, field pea, garden pea, green pea, snow pea, sugar snap pea); Other Beans and Peas (Broad Bean (fava), Chickpea (garbanzo bean), Guar, Jackbean, Lablab bean (hyacinth bean), Lentil, Pigeon pea, Soybean (immature seed), Sword bean).

*Approved for use on "ROOT, TUBEROUS and CORM VEGETABLES Arracacha, Arrowroot, Artichoke (Chinese and Jerusalem), Beet (garden) *, Burdock (edible) *, Canna (edible, Queensland arrbwrroot), carrot*, Cassava (bitter and sweet) *, Celeriac*, Ghayote (root), Chervil (turnip-rooted) *, Chickory, Chufa, Dasheen (taro),. Ginger, Ginseng, Horseradish, Leren, Parsley (turnip-rooted), Parsnip*, Radish*, Oriental radish (diakon) *, Rutabaga*, Salsify (black), Salsify (oyster plant), Salsify (Spanish), Skirret, Sweetpotato, Tanier (cocoyam) *, Turmeric, Turnip*, Yam bean (jicama, manoic pea), Yam (true) * *Tops or greens from these crops may be utilized for food or feed"

*Approved for use on "ROOT VEGETABLES Including: (Beet (garden*), Burdock (edible*), Carrot*, Celeriac*, Chervil (turnip-rooted*), Chicory *, Ginseng, Horseradish, Parsley (turnip-rooted), Parsnip*, Radish*, Oriental radish (diakon*) Rutabaga*), Salsify (oyster plant), Salsify (black*), Salsify (Spanish*), Skirret and turnip*Tops and Greens from these crops may be used for food or feed."

*Approved for use on "TUBEROUS AND CORM VEGETABLES Including: Arracacha, Arrowroot, Artichoke (Chinese and Jerusalem), Canna (edible, Queensland arrowroot), Cassava (bitter and sweet*) Chayote (root), Chufa, Dasheen (taro*), Ginger, Leren, Sweetpotato, Tanier (cocoyam*), Tumeric, Yam bean (jicama, manioc pea), Yam (true*) • Tops and greens from these crops may be used for food or feed."

*Approved for use on strawberries, sugarbeets, blueberry, Currant, Elderberry  Gooseberry, Huckleberry, Juneberry, Lingonberry, Salal, 

*Approved for use on "CITRUS Calamondin, Citrus citron, Citrus hybrids (includes chironja, tangelo and tangor), Grapefruit, Kumquat, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin (tangerine), Pummelo, Orange (sweet and sour), f angelo,; Satsuma mandarin, and other cultivars and/or hybrids of these."

*Approved for use on cranberries, grapes.

*Approved for use on "TREE NUTS, except Almonds Crops of Crop Group 14, except Almonds including: Beechnut, Brazil nut, Butternut, Cashew, Chestnut, Chinquapin, Filbert, Hickory nut, Macadamia nut, Pecan, Pistachio, Walnut [Black and English]."

*Approved for use on "POME FRUIT - Apple, Crabapple. Loquat, Mayhaw, Pear (including Oriental pear), Quince"

*Approved for use on "STONE FRUIT - Apricot, Cherry (including sweet and tart), nectarine, Peach, Plum .(including Chickasaw, Damson and Japanese), Plumcot, Prune"

*Approved for use on "TROPICAL FRUIT - Acerola, Avocado, Black sapote, Canistel, Feijoa, Jaboticaba, Guava, Longan, Lychee, Mamey sapote, Mango, Papaya, Passionfruit, Pulasan, rambutan, Sapodilla, Spanish lime, Star apple, Starfruit, Wax jambu."
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Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Subject: Amended label adding pollinator protection language, Product name: IMIDACLOPRID 2 FL. (2014, march 18). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/086363-00008-20140318.pdf

Key Points:

*”Imidacloprid is one of the most popular and widespread insecticides in the U.S.

*” It mimics nicotine and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocking the receptor and thereby preventing nerve cell transmission, leading to paralysis and death in insects. In humans these receptors are found in neuromuscular junctions and the central nervous system.

*”Imidacloprid is most commonly used on the following crops: rice, cereal, corn, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, fruit, cotton, hops and turf.

*”According to the Pesticide Action Network publicly searchable database, “What’s On My Food”, using data aggregated from public sources including the USDA PDP 2012 data, imidacloprid was detected in the following baby foods and common children’s foods: baby food—applesauce (0.3% of samples); baby food—pears (13.6% of samples); bananas (1.8% of samples); apples (20% of samples); cherries (14% of samples); and grapes (48% of samples).”

*”Moreover, the pesticide’s systemic nature means it cannot just be washed off the surface of these foods prior to consumption. (See U.S. FDA 2015 report)”

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Source:

Sass, Jennifer. (2017, November 29). NRDC to EPA: Red Flags on Imidacloprid Health Risks. Retrieved from https://www.nrdc.org/experts/jennifer-sass/nrdc-epa-red-flags-imidacloprid-health-risks

Key Points:

*p.3 "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN" CAUTION"

*p.7 "This product moves through the plant from the point of foliage contact to and into the root system."

*p.8 "Biological Degradation: Degradation of this product is primarily a biological process carried out by soil microbes."

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Source:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Notice of Pesticide Registration, Name of Pesticide Product: Glyphosate 41%. (2016, June 21). Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/091543-00001-20160621.pdf

 

Key Points:

*"Glyphosate is the most widely used pesticide in the world and the acid herbicides include five of the top 10 active ingredients used in the home and garden sector: mecoprop, dicamba, triclopyr, pelargonic acid, and 2,4-D (also one of the most commonly used pesticides in the world)."

*"Usage of 2,4-D is expected to triple in the coming year when crops genetically modified to resist it are introduced into the agricultural market."

*"FDA has never monitored glyphosate and the acid herbicides in its regulatory pesticide program."

*"In its audit of the FDA's pesticide program, GAO noted that glyphosate and 2,4-D were among the most commonly used pesticides in the United States, but the FDA has rarely tested for these pesticides in its regulatory monitoring program or disclosed the fact that it does not test for these pesticides."

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Source:

U.S. Food & Drug Administration, From: Consumer Safety Officer, Program Assignment and Monitoring Branch, Division of Field Programs and Guidance, Office of Compliance, CFSAN, HFS-615. (2017, May 18). Retrieved from https://usrtk.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/FDA-May-18-2017-memo-on-gly-and-24-D.pdf

Key Point:

*"If your pets are liable to eat the plants, don't apply Roundup."

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Source:

Kelly, Jasey. (2018, December 6). How Long After Using Roundup Can Pets Be in the Yard? Retrieved from https://homeguides.sfgate.com/long-after-using-roundup-can-pets-yard-84614.html

Key Points:

*"The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticides malathion and diazinon were classified as probable carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)."

*"Glyphosate also caused DNA and chromosomal damage in human cells, although it gave negative results in tests using bacteria."

*"Group 2A means that the agent is probably carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals."

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Source:

International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs Volume 112: evaluation of five organophosphate insecticides and herbicides. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from https://www.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/MonographVolume112-1.pdf

Key Points:

*"The jury found unanimously that Monsanto was responsible for Dewayne "Lee" Johnson's non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and should have known the dangers posed by the herbicide glyphosate, which markets as Roundup and the more-concentrated Ranger Pro."

*"The verdict could be a forerunner for the 4,000 lawsuits that have been filed across the country by individuals who claim they were sickened by Roundup."

*"Glyphosate, the world's leading herbicide, was classified as a probable human carcinogen in 2015 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of the World Health Organization."

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Source:

Egelko, Bob and Fimrite, Peter. (2018, August 10). Monsanto case: Bay Area man with cancer awarded $289 million in damages. Retrieved from https://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Monsanto-case-Bay-Area-man-with-cancer-awarded-13147891.php

Key points: 

*"Review of the mouse oncogenicity study indicates that glyphosate is oncogenic, producing renal tubule adenomas, a rare tumor, in a dose-related manner."

*"Therefore, Toxicology Branch considers the PP#3E2845 is not toxicologically supported."

*"A risk assessment by Toxicology Branch is required."

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Source:

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Memorandum. (1984, February 10). Retrieved from https://usrtk.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/1984-mouse-is-oncogenic.pdf

Key Points:

*"For example, the average latency period for the development of NHL due to long-term, low-level exposure to organic solvents is about 20 years."

*"I would expect the average latency period for glyphosate exposure in relation to potential NHL to be at the upper end of this range, most likely 20 or more years from initial exposure."

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Source:

Exhibit 1, City of Hope. ((2016, March 29). Retrieved from https://usrtk.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Monsanto-exhibit-Weisenburger-letter-to-EPA-re-latency.pdf

Key Points:

* Contains  list of pesticides approved for use on U.S. crops.

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Source:

Compiled by Karen Rennich and Jennie Stitzinger for the National Honey Bee Pest and Disease Survey funded by APHIS. Pesticide Descriptions. Retrieved from http://www.pastatebeekeepers.org/other/pesticides.htm